KOTA KINABALU: Sabah though may have lost substantial revenue from the forest and its resources, it has achieved many milestones in forest management and conservation.
“Due to deliberate conservation measures and economic diversification, forest revenue today accounts for only four percent or less of the total state revenue,” Sabah Forestry Department Director Datuk Sam Mannan told Bernama.
However, he said, conservation measures caused high opportunity costs.
For example, land with good palm oil potential in the Ulu Segama-Malua Sabah Forest Management (SFM) and Forest Stewardship Council (SFC) certified areas, demand a current market price of at least USD10,000 (RM42000) per hectare, excluding the timber resources on the land.
“This translates to a capped potential financial return on land value alone of at least USD20 billion (RM80 billion).
“This is a mind boggling opportunity lost in the cause of conservation. Despite this loss, the forests are no longer exhausted but managed for sustainability,” he said to Bernama.
PHASING OUT ANNUAL LICENCES
In line with the state’s deliberate conservation measures and economic diversification, the State Government has phased out short term annual logging licences inside Forest Reserves (FR).
“In a historical decision logging in Ulu Segama-Malua was phased out completely in December 2007, after nearly 50 years of continuous logging.
“Thus eliminating some 50 years of non-sustainable, politically driven timber allocation policies of the past.
“This has helped to ensure that timber harvesting in Sabah is now planned with governance and addressing sustainability at the same time,” he said.
The ulu Segama-Malua area that holds about 30 percent (3,500-4,000) of Sabah’s total Orang Utan population was given Class 1 (Protected Forest Reserve) protection status and Totally Protected Areas (TPAs) in Nov 2012.
HALF A MILLION HECTARE REHABILITATED
On reforestation measures in Sabah, Mannan said as of Dec 2014 the state had planted naturally treated and rehabilited natural forest covering an area of about 550,000 hectares.
This, since 2005, translates to an annual average outcome of 20,000 hectare of silviculture and 3,000 hectares of natural forest rehabilitation planting.
The establishment of 6,000-10,000 hectares of new forest plantations of fast growing exotics and natural species each year has been maintained.
It is forecasted that Sabah would produce 5 million cubic metres (m3) of certified plantation timber (exotics and natural species) and natural forests harvesting of 500,000 m3 by the year 2030.
“This will be more than sufficient to support a robust timber industry, employing modern technology to produce high quality products,” he said.
The products include fancy plywood, garden furniture, cellulose-based plastics, and green fuel, pulp and paper, ethanol and truck bodies, amongst others.
THE MILESTONES IN CONSERVATION
In a move to build Sabah’s reputation as the pioneer of compelling undertakings in tropical forest conservation and management, the state has established an extensive network of collaboration with several renowned foreign institutions.
These institutions include the Royal Society of the United Kingdom (UK), a prestigious research organisation that has been working in Danum Valley since 1985.
Other research institutions engaged in bio-diversity research in Sabah are Kyoto University, Cambridge University, the University of London (since 2011) with the collaboration from Royal Society, Imperial College London and Sime Darby.
Sabah pioneered Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) in the 1990s for Dipterocarp forests, with research undertaken near Danum Valley, a 1,900 hectares compartment with assistance from the Royal Society Research Programme.
The state is the home to the largest research project assessing land-use changes at Kalabakan called SAFE (Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystem).